Lucid CoPS: Summary of Research and Supporting Scientific Evidence

Lucid CoPS is a suite of computerised tests designed for the assessment of cognitive skills in the age range 4 to 8 years. The Lucid CoPS suite comprises nine standardised tests of memory (visual and verbal, associative and sequential), phonological awareness, phoneme discrimination and colour discrimination (the latter being a supplementary test). These tests were selected following a five-year prospective longitudinal research study carried out at the University of Hull, designed to determine the most effective measures that would provide teachers with a method for early identification of dyslexia and other learning problems.

As with all of Lucid’s products, the tests in Lucid CoPS were produced in accordance with the highest international test development standards, including procedures for item creation and refinement, psychometric validation and national standardisation to create robust norms.  In the original research study a total of 27 computerised tests were first created in order to assess a wide variety of cognitive abilities, and these tests were administered to 400 5-year-old children in 24 schools.  The literacy, numeracy and intellectual development of these children was followed up over the next four years, using a variety of standardised psychological measures.  The follow-up data were then used to narrow the range down to the nine tests that were most effective empirical predictors of dyslexia and other learning difficulties.  The results of this research work, which validates the Lucid CoPS suite of tests, were reported in the international peer-reviewed research publication Journal of Research in Reading in 2000.  For further details of this work and the scientific rationale behind it, see Lucid Fact Sheet 43 or Section 1.2 of the Lucid CoPS Teacher’s Manual.

The standardisation sample for Lucid CoPS comprised 1,107 children aged from 4:0 to 8:11, drawn from 59 schools across the UK, selected to give a nationally representative spread of types of school, levels of achievement and socio-economic advantage/disadvantage.  Student selection procedures conformed to recognised international test development standards to ensure no sample bias.  For further details regarding standardisation see Section 1.4 of the Lucid CoPS Teacher’s Manual.

Over 30 research publications by academics and educationalists attest to the validity and useful application of Lucid CoPS in the identification of dyslexia not only in UK schools but also in international schools, including some relating to other language versions of CoPS developed around the world (scroll down for a list of research publications).  Among these are research studies carried out by Dr Fiona Simmons of the Department of Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, which have validated the use of CoPS in the early identification children who are likely to experience difficulties in aspects of maths and arithmetic.  These studies were reported in the international peer-reviewed research journals Dyslexia and the European Journal of Cognitive Psychology in 2008.   Among the notable professional reports on Lucid CoPS is one by Allan Cowieson, Quality Improvement Officer with the Additional Support for Learning and Pupil Support Service, Department of Education, North Ayrshire Council, Scotland.  Cowieson concluded that Lucid CoPS is a high cost-effective, easy-to-use system for efficient early identification of dyslexia in schools. In addition Lucid's programs were quoted as an example of good practice in the House of Commons Education and Skills Committee Special Educational Needs Report Third Report of Session 2005-2006 Volume 2, Oral and written evidence EV 100, 101, 114 and 115.

Fact Sheet 11 contains a more extensive list of scientific publications that related to the development of the Lucid programs.